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Having a certificate is by no means an indication of martial ability or teaching competence. I have known some very fine Masters in China who did not have them. Often a Master would have a ceremony and the student would be accepted as a disciple. Sometimes because of circumstances the Master might just say that the student is a disciple and that is enough. Sometimes they may have studied with several (or many) great teachers and there is no ceremony or certificate. I have also known people with many black belts and certificates of high rank that did not deserve them.


I am only including these here as history and nothing more. They usually sit in my closet.

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